Answer: 25,201 eggs.
This puzzle has a few different methods for finding the solution, here is one way:
Find a number X into which all of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide evenly. You can do this by simply using 2*3*4*5*6*7*8*9*10, but you can find a smaller number by finding the prime factors, a subset of which can be used to form any number from 2 to 10. 2*2*2*3*3*5*7 will do. This comes out to be 2520, and is the lowest number into which all the numbers 2-10 divide evenly.
We can add 1 to this number to satisfy the first 9 constraints of the puzzle (the remainder of 2521/2, 2521/3 ... 2521/10 is one), but this does not satisfy the last constraint, divisibility by 11.
Fortunately, we can multiply X (=2520) by any integer and add 1 and we will still satisfy constraints 1-9. So what Y do we multiply X by so that (X*Y) + 1 is divisible by 11. 2520/11 has a remainder of 1. So two 2520s divided by eleven would have a remainder of 1+1 = 2, and so forth...so ten 2520s divided by 11 would have a remainder of 10. This number plus one would divide eleven evenly, as well as also satisfy the first 9 constraints - therefore 25201 is the answer.