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At any given moment of time, a snapshot could be taken of this arrow. In this snapshot, the arrow would not be moving. Let us now take another snapshot, leaving a very small gap of time between them. Again, the arrow is stationary. We can keep taking snapshots for each moment of time, each of which shows the arrow to be stationary. Therefore the overall effect is that the arrow never moves, however it still hits the target!
Where lies the flaw in the logic?
[Ref: ZNPA]
Hint: This is a puzzle to melt the brain!
Answer: The arrow clearly reaches the target.
This is a classic paradox, attributed to Zeno of Elea, a Greek philosopher from Italy. Great minds over the centuries have pondered this paradox, and the scope of a solution is beyond the space available here. It is not even clear that a solution to the paradox actually exists.
For more information, visit the Wikipedia article on Zeno's paradoxes.
Puzzle 6
Two boxes are labelled "A" and "B".
A sign on box A says "The sign on box B is true and the gold is in box A".
A sign on box B says "The sign on box A is false and the gold is in box A".
Assuming there is gold in one of the boxes, which box contains the gold?
[Ref: ZOWG]
Hint: This is a mindbending paradox.
Answer: The problem cannot be solved with the information given.
The following argument can be made: If the statement on box A is true, then the statement on box B is true, since that is what the statement on box A says. But the statement on box B states that the statement on box A is false, which contradicts the original assumption. Therefore, the statement on box A must be false. This implies that either the statement on box B is false or that the gold is in box B. If the statement on box B is false, then either the statement on box A is true (which it cannot be) or the gold is in box B. Either way, the gold is in box B.
However, there is a hidden assumption in this argument: namely, that each statement must be either true or false. This assumption leads to paradoxes, for example, consider the statement: "This statement is false." If it is true, it is false; if it is false, it is true. The only way out of the paradox is to deny that the statement is either true or false and label it meaningless instead. Both of the statements on the boxes are therefore meaningless and nothing can be concluded from them. Common sense dictates that this problem cannot be solved with the information given. After all, how can we deduce which box contains the gold simply by reading statements written on the outside of the box? Suppose we deduce that the gold is in box B by whatever line of reasoning we choose. What is to stop us from simply putting the gold in box A, regardless of what we deduced?
Puzzle 7
This statement is false.
[Ref: ZKUM]
Hint:
Answer: This puzzle is a classic paradox. You can wrangle with the logic for hours and never reach an absolute conclusion.
Puzzle 8
Study this paragraph and all things in it. What is vitally wrong with it? Actually, nothing in it is wrong, but you must admit that it is most unusual. Don't just zip through it quickly, but study it scrupulously. With luck you should spot what is so particular about it and all words found in it. Can you say what it is? Tax your brains and try again. Don't miss a word or a symbol. It isn't all that difficult?
[Ref: ZNVG]
Hint: Which letter is missing?
Answer:
The paragraph does not contain an E, it does contain all of the other letters though.
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