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If we denote Alan by A, Brian by B, Charles by C and Dave by D we can find the answer in the following way. Since A + B + C = D and A + B + C + D = 44, it is easy to see that D has 22 sheep. So A + B + C = 22. We can use this along with the two other facts, A + 3 = B  1 and C  3 = 3A, to find that A has 3, B has 7, C has 12 and D has 22. In a little more detail:
A + B + C = 22 (1)
A + 3 = B  1 (2)
C  3 = 3A (3)
Rearrange (3) to give C = 3A + 3 and replace the C in (1) to give A + B + 3A + 3 = 22. Simplified this gives B = 19  4A (4). Rearrange (2) to give B  A = 4. Use (4) in the place of B to give 19  4A  A = 4 to give A = 3. Now use A to work out B, and then C.
Puzzle 3
Starting in the bottom left corner and moving either up or right, how many different ways are there to get to the top right corner and make a total of 10?
Hint: Remember that a quarter is 25c, a dime is 10c and a nickel is 5c.
Answer: 92 of each coin.
As there are an equal number of quarters, dimes and nickels we know that the answer is a multiple of 25 + 10 + 5 = 40c.
3680 ÷ 40 = 92. QED.
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